Originally Answered: how do i get my book published?
... okay, let's take this from the top.
First of all, you shouldn't even be thinking about publishing right now. You should be writing. In all actuality, you will probably never finish this book. I'm not saying this because of anything about you, I am saying this because a ton of people plan on writing a book and then give up after a few weeks. So yeah. Don't worry about publishing right now.
Now, let's say you DO finish writing your book. You do not send it to a professional editor... you edit it yourself. Many times. You look through the whole thing, not only for grammar and spelling errors, but also for inconsistencies in plot and character. There is a saying, "writing is rewriting" and it's true. By the time you finish edits, you will probably have rewritten your book several times.
You may also want to ask a friend or family member who you know won't have a problem telling you when you're doing something stupid to take a look at it and give you feedback.
After you have edited it several times, you then start the process of querying an agent. Basically, you send a letter explaining a little about yourself and your book to various agents. Most of them say no or just don't reply. If you are very lucky, one will respond that they would like to look at your manuscript. If you are very, very lucky, they will accept your manuscript and agree to represent you. During this step, you should keep in mind that a good agent will NOT ask you for a ton of money before you are published. They get a cut of what you are paid when the manuscript is accepted by a publisher- you should not have to pay out of pocket.
After you are accepted, the agent will go to various publishers and hopefully one of them will be interested and agree to publish. THIS is the point that a professional editor will help you out. He or she will be provided by the publishing company, and they will go through your book and help you to make many more changes as needed. While this is going on, the publisher will also work on marketing, cover design, and title selection (authors often don't get to keep the title they pick for their book). Then the book will be published.
You can, of course, also go through self-publishing, if you don't really care about actually selling your book and just want to have a copy of it printed. In general, self publishing is very unlikely to sell many copies of your book. On the plus side, you have complete creative control and you can be pretty much certain that you can get it published, since you will be paying to do so yourself.
For the question on patent... you do not patent a book. Patent refers to inventions. You copyright a book. A book is copyrighted from the moment it is written. However, if you want to register your copyright, you do so through the U.S. copyright office (unless you are from another country, in which case you would go through your nations copyright office). More information can be found here: http://www.copyright.gov/. Check out the FAQ for any questions you have about what is protected by copyright and what that means.
Finally... the phrase is "quote unquote" and it's usually only used when you're speaking. In writing, the same thing can be shown by actually putting quotes around the phrase (as you did, with "bucket list"). When you're speaking, you can't really use quotes (unless you use air bunnies) without saying so. And the phrase is meant to refer to things somewhat sarcastically. Just so you know... (sorry for nitpicking, but misused phrases are one of my pet peeves!)