Originally Answered: Classification of Epiphany in literary works?
A literary device may be used by works of literature in order to produce a specific effect on the reader. Literary technique is distinguished from literary genre as military tactics are from military strategy. Thus, though David Copperfield employs satire at certain moments, it belongs to the genre of comic novel, not that of satire. By contrast, Bleak House employs satire so consistently as to belong to the genre of satirical novel. In this way, use of a technique can lead to the development of a new genre, as was the case with one of the first modern novels, Pamela by Samuel Richardson, which by using the epistolary technique gave birth to the epistolary novel.
Many of the techniques listed below can also be used in other forms of fiction, for example film.
Annotated list of literary techniques
Author surrogate, a character who acts as the author's spokesman. Sometimes the character may intentionally or unintentionally be an idealized version of the author. A well known variation is the Mary Sue or Gary Stu.
Back-story, the story "behind" or "before" the events being portrayed in the story being told; past events or background for a character that can serve to color or add additional meaning to current circumstances. Provides extra depth to the story by anchoring it to external events, real or imagined.
Breaking the fourth wall, the author or a character addressing the audience directly (also known as direct address). May acknowledge to the reader or audience that what is being presented is fiction, or may seek to extend the world of the story to provide the illusion that they are included in it.
Conceit is an extended metaphor, associated with metaphysical poetry, designed to push the limits of the imagination in order to portray something indescribable.
Deleted affair, telling of a romantic relationship, but not referred to in current story
Deus ex machina (God from the Machine), a plot device dating back to ancient Greek theater, where the primary conflict is resolved through a means that seems unrelated to the story (i.e. a God comes down out of nowhere and solves everything, saving the character from peril). In modern times, the Deus ex machina is often considered a clumsy method, to be avoided in order not to frustrate readers or viewers.
Epic Theater, a technique popularized by 20th century playwright Bertolt Brecht, in which the audience is "alienated" or "distanced" from the emotion of the play
Epiphany, is a literary work or section of a literary work presenting, usually symbolically, such a moment of revelation and insight.
Epistolary novel, novel in the form of letters exchanged between the characters. Classic examples include Pamela by Samuel Richardson (1740), Humphry Clinker by Tobias Smollett (1771), Les Liaisons dangereuses by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos (1782) and Dracula by Bram Stoker (1897).
False documents, fiction written in the form of, or about, apparently real, but actually fake documents. Examples include Robert Graves' I, Claudius, a fictional autobiography of the Roman emperor. The short stories of Jorge Luis Borges are often written as summaries or criticisms of books that in actuality do not exist.
Fictional fictional character, a character whose fictional existence is introduced within a larger work of fiction, or a character in a story within a story. Early examples include Panchatantra and Arabian Nights.
Flashback, general term for altering time sequences, taking characters back to the beginning of the tale, for instance.
Framing device, the usage of a single action, scene, event, setting, or any element of significance at the beginning and end of a work.
Foreshadowing, hinting at events to occur later.
Frame story, or a story within a story, where a main story is used to organise a series of shorter stories. Early examples include Panchatantra and Arabian Nights.
Incluing, describing a different world, such as "Brave New World"
In medias res, when the story begins in the middle of an intense action sequence.
Irony is a form of stating one thing and meaning another.
Juxtaposition, when the author places two themes, characters, phrases, words, or situations together for the purpose of comparison, contrast, or rhetoric.
Magic realism, a form particularly popular in Latin America but not limited to that region, in which events are described realistically, but in a magical haze of strange local customs and beliefs. Gabriel García Márquez is a notable author in the style.
Metaphor, in which a tale stands for something larger, as in Anatole France's Penguin Island, in which the penguin society described in the book stands for human society.
Overstatement, exaggeration of something, often for the purpose of emphasis.
Parody, ridicule by imitation, usually humorous, such as MAD Magazine
Pastiche, using forms and styles of another author, generally as an affectionate tribute, such as the many stories featuring Sherlock Holmes not written by Arthur Conan Doyle, or much of the Cthulhu Mythos.
Personification, the use of comparative metaphors and similes to give human-like characteristics to non-human objects.
Plot twist is a change ("twist") in the direction or expected outcome of the plot of a film or novel.
Poetic justice is a literary device in which virtue is ultimately rewarded or vice punished, often in modern literature by an ironic twist of fate intimately related to the character's own conduct.
Predestination paradox, a paradox of time travel when a time traveller is caught in a loop of events that "predestines" him or her to travel back in time.
Self-fulfilling prophecy, a prediction that, in being made, actually causes itself to become true. Early examples include the legend of Oedipus, and the story of Krishna in the Mahabharata.
Sensory detail, sight, sound, taste, touch, smell.
Side story, a form of narrative that occurs alongside established stories set within a fictional universe. Examples include Mahabharata, Ramayana, Gundam, Doctor Who and The Matrix.
Stream of consciousness, an attempt to portray all the thoughts and feelings of a character, as in parts of James Joyce, William Faulkner, and Virginia Woolf.
Tone, or the overall attitude that an author appears to hold toward the work—a novel such as Candide makes fun of the sufferings of its characters, while The Sorrows of Young Werther takes its protagonist's suffering very seriously
Word play, in which the nature of the words used themselves become part of the work
Writer's voice, a literary technique combining various structural aspects of an author's writing style.
Originally Answered: Classification of Epiphany in literary works?
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Classification of Epiphany in literary works?
I'm writing an essay on epiphany in literary works. In "Epiphany in Modern Novels" Beja pointed out 5 types of epiphany, but I think there must be more. Would anybody tell me the types of epiphany, and hopefully, point out some literary works for example.