Originally Answered: Insects flying inside a moving vehicle travel with it, though not in contact with the vehicle How? Dont laugh.?
OK. I will try to answer your questions. But in order not to be complicated, I may have to be a bit wordy.
Lets assume the windows are closed. They do not have to be, but it makes it clearer what is going on in the car.
When the car starts from a stop, the air in the car is not moving, and let us say that the insects are hovering in the air, just in the middle of the car.
When you begin to accellerate, both the insects and the air shifts towards the rear of the car, just like a car-full of balloons would shift backwards if you accellerated. The balloons would move back and get a bit squeezed together, ready to spring forward again. The air pressure increases in the air to the rear, and drops slightly in the air in the front of the car. This is a little complicated, but you can see that if there was a tub of water in the car, it would slosh towards the back of the car - and it would stay sloshing, but 'leaning' backwards, as long as the car continued to accellerate. The air does something like that, but instead of sloshing, the part under more pressure - the part being rammed into the back window - gets slightly compressed.
(The back of the car now is pushing the air mass, accellerating the air mass forward.) And then this pressure in the back of the car tries to expand forwards in the car, and it in doing that, it accellerates the air and the insects forward.
So the energy the motor has produced is transferred to the air by the pressure of the rear window, and that air pushes the air in front of it, and so forth, and even the insects eventually get pushed along. They may not get pushed along 100% - they may have to do a little flying to catch up with the moving air - but the air does most of the work.
The insects are not getting a free ride. The car's engine is moving the cars body and that is moving the air and the insects. If you measured the energy that it took the motor to bring the car to speed, you would see that there would be a difference with and without the insects.
Yes. OK. I lied. You probably would have a very VERY difficult time getting a measurement that precise. But it is really what is happeneing.
Next is the question of the plane taking off or not taking off due to the earths rotation. This is a question of relative motion.
There are two points that are interesting here.
The first is what it takes to get a plane to fly, and that is the speed of the air over the upper surface of the plane's wing. To get the plane to fly, to lift, you only need to move the plane, say, 250 miles faster than the air, and since the air is not moving with regard to the ground, you only need to get the plane to move at 250 mph with regard to the groound.
The other point is that you are moving, when you are in the air, relative to the air. And if the air is not moving relative to the ground, then you are also moving at that same speed relative to the ground.
So it really does not matter if the ground is moving - rotating - or not. Just as it does not matter that the planet is revolving around the sun, or that the entire solar system is moving in a galaxy that is moving relative to other galaxies.
The concept of relative motion is not so easy if you are not accustomed to it, but it is a matter of common experience: when you are in a train or plane and get up to walk around, you can notice that even though the plane or train is moving very quickly, you can walk back and forth with 'the usual' effort.
Well, who knows? Maybe I managed to express it clearly.